Here are some basic brow shapes and what they do for your face. Which do you have? Tweet us @askbeautician
- Softens the face and helps to tone down harder features such as pointed chin or angular bone structure
- Draws people’s gaze upward, tends to add youthfullness and works well with strong jaw, diamond or round face shapes. There is a thing as too much peak though, so be careful.
- Similar to the Hard Angled, but with a slightly softer, more subtle look
- This shape lends a confident, professional look and is good for oval or square face shapes.
- The flat brow works wonders for long face shapes, because of it’s horizontal line. It tends to make the face look shorter and more oval.
Hairs are long keratinized structures. Keratin is a protein, which is resistant to wear and tear. It is the protein that also makes up the nails. Like other proteins in the body, keratin is also a large molecule made up of smaller units called amino acids. The amino acids are joined together. The diameter of a single hair varies from person to person but it is usually around 0.05mm to 0.09 mm. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin. A hair arises from an indentation on the epidermis. The hair has two parts, the hair follicle and the hair shaft. The hair follicle is the point from which the hair grows. It is a tiny cup-shaped pit buried in the scalp.
The terminal part of the hair follicle seated within the skin is called a hair bulb. The hair bulb is the structure formed by actively growing cells. These cells produce the long, fine and cylinder shaped hair fibers. In the hair bulb, there are cells, which produce the pigment that gives the hair its colour. This pigment is called melanin and the cells producing it are known as melanocytes.
At the base of each hair bulb is the dermal papilla. It is essential for the nourishment of the growing hairs. Within the skin, internal and external root sheaths cover the hair follicles. The external root sheath of a hair follicle is continuous along with the epidermis. There are also glands adjacent to the hair follicles. The most important one of these glands is the sebaceous gland, which produces and secretes the natural oils lubricating hairs, namely sebum. The part of the hair seen above the skin is called the hair shaft. The hair shaft is made up of dead cells that have turned into keratin and binding material, together with small amounts of water. This structure explains why we do not feel any pain while our hair is being cut.
The hair shaft is formed by three layers. The innermost layer of the hair shaft is named the medulla. It is seen only in large and thick hairs. The middle layer of the hair shaft is called the cortex, made of keratin fibers. The strength, colour and texture of a hair fiber are provided by the cortex layer of the hair shaft. The outermost layer of the hair shaft is the cuticle. This thin and colourless layer made up of between six to ten overlapping layers of long cells, serves as a protection to the cortex.
There are 3 types of hair growing on the human body. These are vellus hairs, terminal hairs and intermediate hairs.
Vellus hairs are short hairs of a centimeter or two long. A vellus hair contains little or no pigment, and thus, is colourless. Vellus hair follicles do not have adjacent sebaceous glands. At the same time, their shaft does not have a melanin layer. Vellus hairs are fine and soft.
Terminal hairs are long hairs that grow on the scalp and in many people on the body. They are produced by hair follicles with adjacent sebaceous glands. Terminal hairs have large, darkly pigmented hair fibers that have a medulla at the innermost part.
An intermediate hair shows the characteristics of both vellus hairs and terminal hairs. Intermediate hairs have a medulla and contain a moderate amount of pigment, less than that found in the terminal hair type. When people lose their hair (going bald) the process of terminal hair follicles and intermediate hair follicles change in that they no longer produce terminal hairs. In these areas, hair follicles grow vellus hairs rather than terminal hairs.
Babies, born before their due date, still have soft, downy hair called lanugo covering their bodies. In fact, in Latin, Lanugo means down. At around five months gestation the fetal hair follicles produce this first hair or lanugo. Babies that are born at term have usually shed most of this hair inside the womb, usually around the seventh or eighth month. Lanugo is believed to help keep the baby warm in the early stages of pregnancy. At thirty six to forty weeks in pregnancy the lanugo hair is replaced by vellus hair.
Hair Growth Cycle
Human hairs go through three stages before falling out - the anagen or growing phase, the catagen or transitional phase and the telogen or resting phase.
Understanding the life cycle of a hair helps to explain why shed hair ends up in your hairbrush, and why not all the hairs on your head are the same length.
The Anagen or Growing Phase of a Hair
The anagen phase of hair growth is the longest of the three phases, it can last between two and six years. A longer anagen phase allows a person to reach a longer terminal length – the maximum length hair can grow before it naturally leaves the follicle. In reality, diet, hormones, and mechanical (heat)and chemical damage (bleaching, dyes) to hair can affect how long a person can grow her hair.
During the anagen phase, a hair grows as dead cells of keratin are pushed out through the scalp or skin if on the the body. The sebaceous glands produce an oily substance called sebum, which helps to condition and protect the hair. At any time, approximately 85% of the hairs are in the anagen phase.
The Catagen or Transitional Phase of Hair Growth
When the anagen phase is completed, the hair enters the catagen or transitional phase. The sebaceous glands produce less sebum and the hair stops growing. In this time or phase a club hair is formed as part of the hair follicle attaching to the hair shaft. Stopping hair receiving anymore nourishment via the blood supply. At the end of two weeks, the hair begins the telogen phase.
The telogen phase is for approximately three months. During this time the hair “just sits there”, still attached but not growing. The hair follicle rests from producing keratin. At this point the club hair is fully formed . When the hair has been shed you can see by looking for a white, hard lump on the root end of the hair.
When the resting phase is completed the hair sheds out and the cycle begins again. Humans lose approximately 100 hairs a day as some follicles complete the telogen phase. Unlike moulting animals, our hairs enter different phases at different times so the shed is unnoticeable! People with thick, dark or long hair often seem to shed more hair, but this is just because the hair is more visible – three waist-length hairs look like a lot more hair than three inch-long hairs.
In pregnancy, hormones lock a woman’s hair into the anagen stage or growth. Due to this, several months post-pregnancy a higher percentage of hairs than normal may suddenly enter the catagen, followed by the telogen phases. Resulting noticeable hair loss is known as telogen effluvium.
Hair grows near everywhere on the human body. The only place hair does not grow is palms of hands and feet, and the lips. There are 3,117,947 hairs on a human being it may sound like a lot, but almost all of our body has hair.
Eyelashes approximately 100-150 on the upper eyelid for the average human eyelashes take about seven to eight weeks to grow back if pulled out.
Puberty marks the time when hair starts to thicken or grow in areas where no hair grew before. While females can expect hair to thicken on the legs and grow in the armpits and genital area, males can expect thickened hair on the arms and legs, and hair growth on the face, armpits, genital area—and sometimes the chest, back and buttocks. The hair doesn’t grow and thicken all at once but in stages that vary from person to person. Luteinizing hormone, secreted by the pituitary gland, stimulates puberty and the eventual onset of hair growth in males and females. Luteinizing hormone stimulates secretion of testosterone in males and estrogen in females. Other hormones that initiate body changes are adrenal androgens in both sexes and progesterone in females.
Eyelash Extensions Tools
Couch roll and towels for setting out the couch comfortably as well as hygienically for client. Also for the trolley to hold products.
Magnifying beauty lamp
Oil free eye makeup remover
Cotton wool dry and damp (damp cotton in a clean bowl)
Bowl of sterilised water with eye bath (incase of reaction, or product in eye)
A jar of barbicide for sterilising tweezers (with barbacide appropriately diluted to instructions)
Stone/aluminium foil/glue ring
2 pairs long tweezers with a fine point. These can also be a pair of X type tweezers which when pressed open
A pair eye pads that are lint free, collagen eye pads are often good (cotton wool is no good)
Disposable mascara brushes /comb brush for eyelashes
Microbrush applicators (micro swabs)
Selection of individual lashes long, medium, short, also different curl types .
Tool type and brand selection really depends on therapist’s personal preference, however regardless of the tools used, they have to be appropriately disinfected and prepared before client comes for appointment.
A glue ring can be used or a jade stone is commonly used to keep the adhesive cool during the treatment. It is usually covered with micropore tape for longer lasting life. Eyelash extension technician usually dispenses small amount of adhesive glue right on to the tape before the application treatment. This covering micro pore surgical medical tape can simply be replaced every application.
Disposal of waste: Single use items, micro brushes, disposable applicators, pedal bin with a liner, spillages and unused solvents, contaminated waste, hazardous waste, environmental protection.
Work area: Height adjustable chair – correct posture; correct beauty bed height and width; flammable products – COSHH regulations; pillow - client comfort; heating – room temperature for products to perform correctly; lighting – overhead lamp with a magnifying glass; trailing wires, obstructions, salon lighting, natural lighting, health, appropriate ventilation, tools and equipment in a safe working position for therapist, lined pedal bin with lid.
Client preparation: Remove any outer clothing protect against damage, client comfort, client posture, remove any jewellery - protection against damage, removal of accessories, privacy and modesty. Place a head band on client.
Sterilisation: Autoclave, glass bead, chemical – alcohol, glutaraldehyde; UV cabinet for storage only. Disinfection: Heat or chemical methods, bactericides, fungicides, virucides.
Hygiene techniques and procedures: Sterilise tools, disinfect work surfaces, cover cuts and abrasions, sanitise therapist hands before and after treatments, sanitise with sprays and gels, clean towels between client, washed at 60 degrees centigrade, dirty towels in covered bin, disposable towels, disposables used wherever possible, dispense products with a spatula, pump or spray; micro brushes, applicators and mascara brushes disposed of after single use;
Ventilation, correct use and storage of chemicals – COSHH; manufacturer’s instructions, no smoking - personal hygiene; replacing loose lids, uncapped bottles and pots; check end date, store away from heat, damp and direct sunlight. Over exposure to chemicals - prevention: Routes of entry to the body – preventing inhalation, ingestion, absorption; salon hygiene, correct application techniques, correct storage of chemicals, manufacturer’s instructions, PPE, correct ventilation, decanting products, eye protection - contact lenses, safety glasses; wash hands before, during and after. Over exposure to chemicals – symptoms: Headaches, sickness, dizziness, fainting, fatigue, respiratory system, skin irritation. Therapist posture and deportment: Correct posture when sitting, correct posture with lifting.
Individual synthetic lashes are carefully bonded to your existing lashes with an adhesive suitable for eye treatments. In most salons you can either get a full set, taking about an hour and a half to apply - a false lash is applied to each of your existing lashes. The false eyelash extensions bare a close resemblance to natural lashes and once attached, with the correct care, can last several weeks, or until the eyelashes naturally fall out.
The semi-permanent eyelash extensions have the characteristic c-shaped curl, so even people with lashes that are straight or slope downwards can achieve individual lashes that curl upwards, without the need of eyelash perms or dyeing.
Clients are individually evaluated to receive the correct amount of lashes for the look the client desires or advised for their lifestyle or for their eye shape/setting so it is hard to say how many individual lashes will be used on every client. Some clients will also need more or less depending on their organic volume of lashes on the client.
On first consultation a therapist will identify the correct length, curl and width based on what the client is hoping to achieve and what will suit them best.
This delicate, totally painless procedure involves attaching between 30-100 synthetic lashes onto the natural eyelashes. The end result is natural looking, fuller, longer and beautiful lashes.
A patch test will be given to the client, this needs to done 24-48 hrs before the treatment can be done. Also it is important to get the client to sign a disclaimer, to say they have had the patch test. The patch test is a small blob of the adhesive (the same adhesive that will be used for this treatment) it is placed behind the client’s ear (out of view) or on the inside of the arm where the elbow is. If the client gets a reaction, such as a rash, swelling, redness, itching or sore the treatment cannot go ahead as it would be unsafe for the client.
On the day of treatment, if no reaction has occurred to the patch test the therapist will go through the consultation with the client. Checking that no contra indications could prevent the treatment from going ahead. The consultation form would be filled out, and the therapist would ensure the client is aware of the procedure before the client is ready to go on to the couch. Any contact lense wearers would need to remove contact lenses before the procedure.
Contra indications : Severe skin conditions, eye infections, conjunctivitis, bacterial infections, inflammation or swelling of the skin around the eye, undiagnosed lumps or swellings, eye diseases and disorders, positive patch test, styes, blepharitis, watery eye such as hayfever or a cold virus can produce, hypersensitive skin, severe bruising, cuts and abrasions, nervous client that is possibly claustrophobic or has a problem with keeping their shut for a long period of time.
Contra-indications that restrict treatment: Minor bruising, recent scar tissue, minor eczema, minor psoriasis, minor inflammation of the skin, facial piercing
Contra-actions: Adhesive entering eye, sensitivity or burning sensation, allergic reaction, erythema, eye irritations - remove all products immediately, use eye bath to flush eye, seek medical advice if condition persists; all reactions and actions taken recorded on record card.
Avoidance of activities which cause contra-actions (heat, steam, water for first 24 hours). Never attempt to remove lashes yourself, this can damage your natural lashes. If the client wishes to have the lashes removed they must make an appointment to have them removed by a trained therapist in lash extentions. Contact lenses wearers I would advise to not wear their lenses immediately after the treatment, but to wait until 24 hours have passed, just incase of any reaction. It is important that a client does not use oily products around the eye as the lash glue is broken down by oil. Be careful to not rub at your eyes, pull or tug at the lashes. The lashes don’t lend themselves to having mascara applied on the top. Mascaras are oil based and will break the glue down. There are dedicated mascara’s for eyelash extentions (water based)so it is advised that if a client wants to use a mascara this is used rather than any other type of mascara. However, removal of the mascara must not be with an oil based remover, and is best done with a disposable mascara wand dipped in the eye makeup remover and brushed gently through the lashes. The disposable wand is then wiped clean, with a tissue. This process is repeated until the tissue no longer has mascara coming away from the mascara wand on to the tissue.
A full set of extensions will last up to eight weeks, infills are generally recommended every four - four and half weeks to keep lashes looking full and luscious. Extensions will fall away with your natural lash as the lashes are in a continuous growth cycle of falling out and growing again. The life of your extensions mostly depends on how well a client will care for them and the natural shedding of your own natural lash growth cycle. A good therapist will make the return booking for their client, for refills or for removal before their client has left the salon.
DON’T brush your hair when wet! It damages your hair, use a wide toothed comb or your fingers to detangle. Don’t force it though, be gentle.
…but what damage have we been doing and how do we repair and prevent this?
Don’t just wash your hair. It’s important to clean styling tools like straighteners and curling tongs at least once a week; product residue remains on these tools and when they are reused this residue is seared into hair which can damage it further and make it brittle. We recommend using alcohol and a soft cloth.
Gently squeeze out (never wring out your hair by twisting it, the best way is to towel dry ) as much excess water as possible before applying conditioner. Hair that’s saturated with water doesn’t have room to absorb anything else; we recommend you try this technique.
Look after your scalp and your hair will follow. Your scalp affects the way that your hair looks- a dull, dry scalp means dull looking hair. Omega 3 fatty acids are crucial to the health of your scalp and can be found in foods like walnuts, fish and flaxseed.
Let your products do the hard work. Even if you just use shampoo and conditioner make sure you work them in your hands to emulsify them before applying them to your hair- let the products work hard so you don’t have to!
Boost moisture in your hair. Hair needs a specific balance of moisture to make it healthy and manageable. A naturally occurring substance called Sebum locks in the moisture in your hair. Sebum is washed away by normal shampoos but applying oil, such as Argan oil, to hair can help to protect it by penetrating deep inside the hair cuticle making it smoother and less prone to damage.
Something, we ALL need to know.. even if your fit, slim and healthy.. after a few indulgent days.. it doesn’t take long for your skin to lack lustre & glow.. So back to getting some healthy food.. and purge out body’s from toxins, that our bodies are trying to remove in whatever way possible.. Today is a glorious day for a nice walk in the sun.. no gale force winds, to tangle hair, and dry skins.
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