How to avoid the ring-around-the-mouth look when lipstick fades faster than your lip liner
It is a fact that many lip pencils will outlast lipstick any day of the week so how can you keep your lips looking great all day long?
Consider this when applying lip cosmetics:
Invest in Quality Store brand lipsticks tend to fade more than professional cosmetics.
Use a base for your lipstick Try using blusher as a base for your lipstick. Pat blusher onto your lips with a brush and you will find your lipstick has more “fade-resistance”.
Use blusher as a lip liner Some lip pencils go on so thick the color overpowers the lipstick. A quick remedy is to use your blusher as a lip liner as well. These lipstick tips help prevent any feathering or bleeding and that has to be good news..
Fortunately, I don’t have many wrinkles/lines…but thought I’d give this a try.. just to see if the small amount I have could be visually erased (this is not saying it changes skin, more create the illusion of them being gone).. You apply this on top of your make up, or on skin if not wearing any.. Well this get a complete thumbs down.. did absolutely nothing for me.. if anything it made things look worse.. you can feel the product on the skin, dried.. but to look at the lines are all still there.. save your money folks 0 out of 10
Nail Diseases & Infection
Our bodies host 1000’s of micro organisms, some of which are good for us, heavily promoted in yoghurt drink adverts. These micro organisms include bacteria and fungi.
What is a fungal infection?
Fungal infections are caused by microscopic plants that live on our skin and on the dead tissue of our hair and nails. Below we have listed some of the common diseases and disorders associated with nails.
Always remember “Nail Technicians” are only qualified (make sure your nail technician is qualified) in identifying a problem, and not to diagnose or treat nail diseases and disorders. If you suspect a problem ask you nail technician or seek advice from your GP and possible medical treatment.
Fungal or Yeast Infection
A fungal or yeast infection which results in Onychomycosis, can invade through a tear in the proximal and lateral nail folds as well as the Eponychium. This type of infection is characterized by Onycholysis (nail plate separation) with evident debris under the nail plate. It normally appears white or yellowish in colour, and may also change the texture and shape of the nail. The fungus digests the keratin protein of which the nail plate is comprised. As the infection progresses, organic debris accumulates under the nail plate often discolouring it. Other infectious organisms may be involved, and if left untreated, the nail plate may separate from the nail bed and crumble off.
Paronychia (Nail Infection)
Paronychia disease is an infection of the inflammation skin and soft tissue infections that surrounds a toenail or fingernail. It can start suddenly (acute Paronychia) or gradually (chronic Paronychia).
The etiology, infectious agent, and treatment are usually different for each form, and the 2 forms are often considered separate entities. Acute Paronychia develops over a few hours when a nail fold becomes painful, red and swollen. It is one of the most common hand infections.
Symptoms of Paronychia
A small collection of pus forms under the skin next to the nail, or underneath the nail itself. The area around the nail is tender, red and mildly swollen the cuticle is missing; and the skin around the nail feels moist or “boggy.” Often, only one nail is affected. Acute Paronychia starts as a red, warm, painful swelling of the skin around the nail. In chronic Paronychia, the redness and tenderness are less noticeable than the acute infection. The nail may have a green discoloration due to Pseudomonas infection. It mainly occurs in people who have constantly wet hands, such as hairdressers, nurses, and bartender’s e.t.c.
Pseudomonas (The Greenies)
Pseudomonas bacterial infection can occur between the natural nail plate and the nail bed, and/or between an artificial nail coating and the natural nail plate. Many people have been led to believe that the classic ‘green’ discoloration of this type of infection is some type of mold. In actuality, mold is not a human pathogen. The discoloration is simply a by-product of the infection and is caused primarily by iron compounds. Pseudomonas thrives in moist places; it feeds off the dead tissue and bacteria in the nail plate, while the moisture levels allow it to grow.
The after effects of this infection will cause the nail plate to darken and soften underneath an artificial coating. The darker the discoloration, the deeper into the nail plate layers the bacteria has travelled. If the bacteria have entered between the nail plate and the nail bed, it will cause the same discolorations and may also cause the nail plate to lift from the nail bed.
The symptoms of Tinea include itchiness and foot odour. Sweat and water make the epidermis white and soggy, resulting in Tinea. There often is scaling, maceration and fissuring of the skin between the third and fourth toes.
Tinea or ringworm is caused mainly by Trichophyton rubum and is the commonest type of fungal infection.
Tea Tree Ointment is an antiseptic and soothing ointment which contains tea tree and lavender essential oils blended with infused calendula oil. It is ideal for the healing of Tinea wounds, cuts rashes and for soothing insect bites. May also be used to alleviate Tinea and fungal infections.
Prevention of Tinea
1. Keep feet as clean and dry as possible. 2. Carefully dry feet, especially between the toes. 3. Remove flaky skin from beneath the toes each day with dry tissue paper or gauze. 4. Wearing light socks made of absorbent fibres, such as cotton and wool, to allow better circulation of air and to reduce sweating. 5. Avoid socks made with synthetic fibres. 6. Wearing open sandals or shoes with porous soles and uppers 7. Going barefoot whenever possible.
Onychatrophia is an atrophy or wasting away of the nail plate which causes it to lose its lustre, become smaller and sometimes shed entirely. Injury or disease may account for this irregularity.
A Haematoma is the result of trauma (injury) to the nail plate. It can happen from simply trapping your finger or toe in the door, banging it and even from improperly fitting or ‘too-tight’ shoes.
The nail bed will bleed due to this trauma, and the blood is trapped between the nail bed and the nail plate. Sometime a haematoma may also indicate a fractured bone. It is common for sports men and women to experience haematoma because of the constant friction from the shoes against the toenails.
Haematoma may result in nail plate separation and infection because the blood can attract fungi and bacteria. If several days have passed and the blood clot becomes painful, the nail plate may require removal so the nail bed can be cleansed.
Leuconychia is evident as white lines or spots in the nail plate and may be caused by tiny bubbles of air that are trapped in the nail plate layers due to trauma. This condition may be hereditary and no treatment is required as the spots will grow out with the nail plate.
These can also be characteristic of aging, this does not men it is only limited to the aged or elderly. The nail plate grows forward on the nail bed in a ‘rail and groove’ effect, much like a train rides on its’ tracks.
What can we do, well actually you can correct it but it is possible to reduce the appearance. As we age, the natural oil and moisture levels drop in the nail plate, and this rail and groove effect becomes apparent. Ridged nails can improve through re-hydration of the nail plate with once or twice daily applications of good quality nail and cuticle oil containing Jojoba and Vitamin E.
Is a vertical pigmented band or bands, also known as “nail moles”, which usually form in the nail matrix? If you suddenly notice these or see a change in the nail plate then you should see a GP or dermatologist immediately. Not always but it sometimes can be a malignant melanoma (cancer) or lesion. Dark streaks may be a normal occurrence in dark-skinned people.
Other Nails Disorders & Infections
Onychogryposis are claw-type nails that are characterized by a thickened nail plate and are often the result of trauma. This type of nail plate will curve inward, pinching the nail bed and sometimes require surgical intervention to relieve the pain.
Onychorrhexis are brittle nails which often split vertically, peel and/or have vertical ridges. This irregularity can be the result of heredity, the use of strong solvents in the workplace or the home, including household cleaning solutions. Although oil or paraffin treatments will re-hydrate the nail plate, one may wish to confer with a physician to rule out disease.
Onychauxis is evidenced by over-thickening of the nail plate and may be the result of internal disorders — seek medical advice.
Beau’s Lines are nails that are characterized by horizontal lines of darkened cells and linear depressions. This disorder may be caused by trauma, illness, malnutrition or any major metabolic condition, chemotherapy or other damaging event, and is the result of any interruption in the protein formation of the nail plate. Seek a physician’s diagnosis.
Koilonychias is usually caused through iron deficiency anaemia. These nails show raised ridges and are thin and concave. Seek a physician’s advice and treatment.
Melanonychia are vertical pigmented bands, often described as nail ‘moles’, which usually form in the nail matrix. Seek a physician’s care should you suddenly see this change in the nail plate. It could signify a malignant melanoma or lesion. Dark streaks may be a normal occurrence in dark-skinned individuals, and are fairly common.
Pterygium is the inward advance of skin over the nail plate, usually the result of trauma to the matrix due to a surgical procedure or by a deep cut to the nail plate. Pterygium results in the loss of the nail plate due to the development of scar tissue. Cortisone is used to prevent the advancement of scar tissue. Never attempt to remove Pterygium -instead, consult a physician for advice and treatment.
NOTE: The ‘true cuticle’ is often referred to as Pterygium. If you have Pterygium, it can only be treated by a physician and should never be removed by a nail technician.
Pterygium Inversum Unguis is an acquired condition characterized by a forward growth of the hyponychium characterized by live tissue firmly attached to the underside of the nail plate, which contains a blood supply and nerves. Possible causes are systemic, hereditary, or from an allergic reaction to acrylics or solvents. Never use force to ‘push back’ the advancing hyponychium — it is an extremely painful approach, and will result in a blood flow. Consult a physician for diagnosis and treatment.
Psoriasis of the nails is characterized by raw, scaly skin and is sometimes confused with eczema. When it attacks the nail plate, it will leave it pitted, dry, and it will often crumble. The plate may separate from the nail bed and may also appear red, orange or brown, with red spots in the lunula. Do not attempt salon treatments on a client with Nail Psoriasis. Consult with a dermatologist for diagnosis and treatment.
Brittle Nails are characterized by a vertical splitting or separation of the nail plate layers at the distal (free) edge of the nail plate. In most cases, nail splitting and vertical ridges are characteristic of the natural aging process. This nail problem is also the result of overexposure to water and chemical solvents such as household cleaning solutions. As we age, the nail bed’s natural flow of oils and moisture is greatly reduced. This oil and moisture is the cement that holds the nail plate layers together and gives the plate its inherent flexibility. At the first signs of splitting or peeling, re-hydrate the nail plate layers with a good quality cuticle and nail oil that contains Jojoba and Vitamin E as two of the botanical oils. Jojoba oil has a very tiny molecule which can penetrate the nail plate surface, open up the layers and draw the Vitamin E in after it. The molecular structure of Vitamin E is too large to penetrate the nail plate layers or the surface layer of the skin without the benefits of Jojoba oil. Oil the nail plate and surrounding cuticle at least twice daily; more if you have your hands in water a lot. Wear gloves whenever working with household cleaning solutions, and remember: water is considered the ‘universal solvent’, and is indeed a ‘chemical’.
Here are some basic brow shapes and what they do for your face. Which do you have? Tweet us @askbeautician
- Softens the face and helps to tone down harder features such as pointed chin or angular bone structure
- Draws people’s gaze upward, tends to add youthfullness and works well with strong jaw, diamond or round face shapes. There is a thing as too much peak though, so be careful.
- Similar to the Hard Angled, but with a slightly softer, more subtle look
- This shape lends a confident, professional look and is good for oval or square face shapes.
- The flat brow works wonders for long face shapes, because of it’s horizontal line. It tends to make the face look shorter and more oval.
Hairs are long keratinized structures. Keratin is a protein, which is resistant to wear and tear. It is the protein that also makes up the nails. Like other proteins in the body, keratin is also a large molecule made up of smaller units called amino acids. The amino acids are joined together. The diameter of a single hair varies from person to person but it is usually around 0.05mm to 0.09 mm. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin. A hair arises from an indentation on the epidermis. The hair has two parts, the hair follicle and the hair shaft. The hair follicle is the point from which the hair grows. It is a tiny cup-shaped pit buried in the scalp.
The terminal part of the hair follicle seated within the skin is called a hair bulb. The hair bulb is the structure formed by actively growing cells. These cells produce the long, fine and cylinder shaped hair fibers. In the hair bulb, there are cells, which produce the pigment that gives the hair its colour. This pigment is called melanin and the cells producing it are known as melanocytes.
At the base of each hair bulb is the dermal papilla. It is essential for the nourishment of the growing hairs. Within the skin, internal and external root sheaths cover the hair follicles. The external root sheath of a hair follicle is continuous along with the epidermis. There are also glands adjacent to the hair follicles. The most important one of these glands is the sebaceous gland, which produces and secretes the natural oils lubricating hairs, namely sebum. The part of the hair seen above the skin is called the hair shaft. The hair shaft is made up of dead cells that have turned into keratin and binding material, together with small amounts of water. This structure explains why we do not feel any pain while our hair is being cut.
The hair shaft is formed by three layers. The innermost layer of the hair shaft is named the medulla. It is seen only in large and thick hairs. The middle layer of the hair shaft is called the cortex, made of keratin fibers. The strength, colour and texture of a hair fiber are provided by the cortex layer of the hair shaft. The outermost layer of the hair shaft is the cuticle. This thin and colourless layer made up of between six to ten overlapping layers of long cells, serves as a protection to the cortex.
There are 3 types of hair growing on the human body. These are vellus hairs, terminal hairs and intermediate hairs.
Vellus hairs are short hairs of a centimeter or two long. A vellus hair contains little or no pigment, and thus, is colourless. Vellus hair follicles do not have adjacent sebaceous glands. At the same time, their shaft does not have a melanin layer. Vellus hairs are fine and soft.
Terminal hairs are long hairs that grow on the scalp and in many people on the body. They are produced by hair follicles with adjacent sebaceous glands. Terminal hairs have large, darkly pigmented hair fibers that have a medulla at the innermost part.
An intermediate hair shows the characteristics of both vellus hairs and terminal hairs. Intermediate hairs have a medulla and contain a moderate amount of pigment, less than that found in the terminal hair type. When people lose their hair (going bald) the process of terminal hair follicles and intermediate hair follicles change in that they no longer produce terminal hairs. In these areas, hair follicles grow vellus hairs rather than terminal hairs.
Babies, born before their due date, still have soft, downy hair called lanugo covering their bodies. In fact, in Latin, Lanugo means down. At around five months gestation the fetal hair follicles produce this first hair or lanugo. Babies that are born at term have usually shed most of this hair inside the womb, usually around the seventh or eighth month. Lanugo is believed to help keep the baby warm in the early stages of pregnancy. At thirty six to forty weeks in pregnancy the lanugo hair is replaced by vellus hair.
Hair Growth Cycle
Human hairs go through three stages before falling out - the anagen or growing phase, the catagen or transitional phase and the telogen or resting phase.
Understanding the life cycle of a hair helps to explain why shed hair ends up in your hairbrush, and why not all the hairs on your head are the same length.
The Anagen or Growing Phase of a Hair
The anagen phase of hair growth is the longest of the three phases, it can last between two and six years. A longer anagen phase allows a person to reach a longer terminal length – the maximum length hair can grow before it naturally leaves the follicle. In reality, diet, hormones, and mechanical (heat)and chemical damage (bleaching, dyes) to hair can affect how long a person can grow her hair.
During the anagen phase, a hair grows as dead cells of keratin are pushed out through the scalp or skin if on the the body. The sebaceous glands produce an oily substance called sebum, which helps to condition and protect the hair. At any time, approximately 85% of the hairs are in the anagen phase.
The Catagen or Transitional Phase of Hair Growth
When the anagen phase is completed, the hair enters the catagen or transitional phase. The sebaceous glands produce less sebum and the hair stops growing. In this time or phase a club hair is formed as part of the hair follicle attaching to the hair shaft. Stopping hair receiving anymore nourishment via the blood supply. At the end of two weeks, the hair begins the telogen phase.
The telogen phase is for approximately three months. During this time the hair “just sits there”, still attached but not growing. The hair follicle rests from producing keratin. At this point the club hair is fully formed . When the hair has been shed you can see by looking for a white, hard lump on the root end of the hair.
When the resting phase is completed the hair sheds out and the cycle begins again. Humans lose approximately 100 hairs a day as some follicles complete the telogen phase. Unlike moulting animals, our hairs enter different phases at different times so the shed is unnoticeable! People with thick, dark or long hair often seem to shed more hair, but this is just because the hair is more visible – three waist-length hairs look like a lot more hair than three inch-long hairs.
In pregnancy, hormones lock a woman’s hair into the anagen stage or growth. Due to this, several months post-pregnancy a higher percentage of hairs than normal may suddenly enter the catagen, followed by the telogen phases. Resulting noticeable hair loss is known as telogen effluvium.
Hair grows near everywhere on the human body. The only place hair does not grow is palms of hands and feet, and the lips. There are 3,117,947 hairs on a human being it may sound like a lot, but almost all of our body has hair.
Eyelashes approximately 100-150 on the upper eyelid for the average human eyelashes take about seven to eight weeks to grow back if pulled out.
Puberty marks the time when hair starts to thicken or grow in areas where no hair grew before. While females can expect hair to thicken on the legs and grow in the armpits and genital area, males can expect thickened hair on the arms and legs, and hair growth on the face, armpits, genital area—and sometimes the chest, back and buttocks. The hair doesn’t grow and thicken all at once but in stages that vary from person to person. Luteinizing hormone, secreted by the pituitary gland, stimulates puberty and the eventual onset of hair growth in males and females. Luteinizing hormone stimulates secretion of testosterone in males and estrogen in females. Other hormones that initiate body changes are adrenal androgens in both sexes and progesterone in females.
Eyelash Extensions Tools
Couch roll and towels for setting out the couch comfortably as well as hygienically for client. Also for the trolley to hold products.
Magnifying beauty lamp
Oil free eye makeup remover
Cotton wool dry and damp (damp cotton in a clean bowl)
Bowl of sterilised water with eye bath (incase of reaction, or product in eye)
A jar of barbicide for sterilising tweezers (with barbacide appropriately diluted to instructions)
Stone/aluminium foil/glue ring
2 pairs long tweezers with a fine point. These can also be a pair of X type tweezers which when pressed open
A pair eye pads that are lint free, collagen eye pads are often good (cotton wool is no good)
Disposable mascara brushes /comb brush for eyelashes
Microbrush applicators (micro swabs)
Selection of individual lashes long, medium, short, also different curl types .
Tool type and brand selection really depends on therapist’s personal preference, however regardless of the tools used, they have to be appropriately disinfected and prepared before client comes for appointment.
A glue ring can be used or a jade stone is commonly used to keep the adhesive cool during the treatment. It is usually covered with micropore tape for longer lasting life. Eyelash extension technician usually dispenses small amount of adhesive glue right on to the tape before the application treatment. This covering micro pore surgical medical tape can simply be replaced every application.
Disposal of waste: Single use items, micro brushes, disposable applicators, pedal bin with a liner, spillages and unused solvents, contaminated waste, hazardous waste, environmental protection.
Work area: Height adjustable chair – correct posture; correct beauty bed height and width; flammable products – COSHH regulations; pillow - client comfort; heating – room temperature for products to perform correctly; lighting – overhead lamp with a magnifying glass; trailing wires, obstructions, salon lighting, natural lighting, health, appropriate ventilation, tools and equipment in a safe working position for therapist, lined pedal bin with lid.
Client preparation: Remove any outer clothing protect against damage, client comfort, client posture, remove any jewellery - protection against damage, removal of accessories, privacy and modesty. Place a head band on client.
Sterilisation: Autoclave, glass bead, chemical – alcohol, glutaraldehyde; UV cabinet for storage only. Disinfection: Heat or chemical methods, bactericides, fungicides, virucides.
Hygiene techniques and procedures: Sterilise tools, disinfect work surfaces, cover cuts and abrasions, sanitise therapist hands before and after treatments, sanitise with sprays and gels, clean towels between client, washed at 60 degrees centigrade, dirty towels in covered bin, disposable towels, disposables used wherever possible, dispense products with a spatula, pump or spray; micro brushes, applicators and mascara brushes disposed of after single use;
Ventilation, correct use and storage of chemicals – COSHH; manufacturer’s instructions, no smoking - personal hygiene; replacing loose lids, uncapped bottles and pots; check end date, store away from heat, damp and direct sunlight. Over exposure to chemicals - prevention: Routes of entry to the body – preventing inhalation, ingestion, absorption; salon hygiene, correct application techniques, correct storage of chemicals, manufacturer’s instructions, PPE, correct ventilation, decanting products, eye protection - contact lenses, safety glasses; wash hands before, during and after. Over exposure to chemicals – symptoms: Headaches, sickness, dizziness, fainting, fatigue, respiratory system, skin irritation. Therapist posture and deportment: Correct posture when sitting, correct posture with lifting.
Individual synthetic lashes are carefully bonded to your existing lashes with an adhesive suitable for eye treatments. In most salons you can either get a full set, taking about an hour and a half to apply - a false lash is applied to each of your existing lashes. The false eyelash extensions bare a close resemblance to natural lashes and once attached, with the correct care, can last several weeks, or until the eyelashes naturally fall out.
The semi-permanent eyelash extensions have the characteristic c-shaped curl, so even people with lashes that are straight or slope downwards can achieve individual lashes that curl upwards, without the need of eyelash perms or dyeing.
Clients are individually evaluated to receive the correct amount of lashes for the look the client desires or advised for their lifestyle or for their eye shape/setting so it is hard to say how many individual lashes will be used on every client. Some clients will also need more or less depending on their organic volume of lashes on the client.
On first consultation a therapist will identify the correct length, curl and width based on what the client is hoping to achieve and what will suit them best.
This delicate, totally painless procedure involves attaching between 30-100 synthetic lashes onto the natural eyelashes. The end result is natural looking, fuller, longer and beautiful lashes.
A patch test will be given to the client, this needs to done 24-48 hrs before the treatment can be done. Also it is important to get the client to sign a disclaimer, to say they have had the patch test. The patch test is a small blob of the adhesive (the same adhesive that will be used for this treatment) it is placed behind the client’s ear (out of view) or on the inside of the arm where the elbow is. If the client gets a reaction, such as a rash, swelling, redness, itching or sore the treatment cannot go ahead as it would be unsafe for the client.
On the day of treatment, if no reaction has occurred to the patch test the therapist will go through the consultation with the client. Checking that no contra indications could prevent the treatment from going ahead. The consultation form would be filled out, and the therapist would ensure the client is aware of the procedure before the client is ready to go on to the couch. Any contact lense wearers would need to remove contact lenses before the procedure.
Contra indications : Severe skin conditions, eye infections, conjunctivitis, bacterial infections, inflammation or swelling of the skin around the eye, undiagnosed lumps or swellings, eye diseases and disorders, positive patch test, styes, blepharitis, watery eye such as hayfever or a cold virus can produce, hypersensitive skin, severe bruising, cuts and abrasions, nervous client that is possibly claustrophobic or has a problem with keeping their shut for a long period of time.
Contra-indications that restrict treatment: Minor bruising, recent scar tissue, minor eczema, minor psoriasis, minor inflammation of the skin, facial piercing
Contra-actions: Adhesive entering eye, sensitivity or burning sensation, allergic reaction, erythema, eye irritations - remove all products immediately, use eye bath to flush eye, seek medical advice if condition persists; all reactions and actions taken recorded on record card.
Avoidance of activities which cause contra-actions (heat, steam, water for first 24 hours). Never attempt to remove lashes yourself, this can damage your natural lashes. If the client wishes to have the lashes removed they must make an appointment to have them removed by a trained therapist in lash extentions. Contact lenses wearers I would advise to not wear their lenses immediately after the treatment, but to wait until 24 hours have passed, just incase of any reaction. It is important that a client does not use oily products around the eye as the lash glue is broken down by oil. Be careful to not rub at your eyes, pull or tug at the lashes. The lashes don’t lend themselves to having mascara applied on the top. Mascaras are oil based and will break the glue down. There are dedicated mascara’s for eyelash extentions (water based)so it is advised that if a client wants to use a mascara this is used rather than any other type of mascara. However, removal of the mascara must not be with an oil based remover, and is best done with a disposable mascara wand dipped in the eye makeup remover and brushed gently through the lashes. The disposable wand is then wiped clean, with a tissue. This process is repeated until the tissue no longer has mascara coming away from the mascara wand on to the tissue.
A full set of extensions will last up to eight weeks, infills are generally recommended every four - four and half weeks to keep lashes looking full and luscious. Extensions will fall away with your natural lash as the lashes are in a continuous growth cycle of falling out and growing again. The life of your extensions mostly depends on how well a client will care for them and the natural shedding of your own natural lash growth cycle. A good therapist will make the return booking for their client, for refills or for removal before their client has left the salon.
He send me some items from the Revlon Photoready series, I must admit that I love them all! Actually, I love everything…